Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling inhibition experiments were performed using a specific EGFR kinase inhibitor (AG1478) and TGF- was blocked with an antiCTGF- antibody. for TGF- and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1 from NHBE cells by a Toll-like receptor 2Cdependent mechanism. Recombinant human TGF- also induced mRNA and protein for MMP-1 from NHBE cells; antiCTGF- antibody inhibited HKSA-induced MMP-1, suggesting that endogenous TGF- mediates the MMP-1 induction by HKSA. HKSA-induced MMP-1 expression was suppressed when a specific EGFR kinase inhibitor was added, suggesting that EGFR signaling was mediating the HKSA-induced MMP-1 release. Exposure or colonization by SA in the airway may enhance the remodeling of tissue through a TGF-Cdependent induction of MMP-1 expression, and may thereby promote remodeling in airway diseases in which SA is implicated, such as Sophoridine asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis. in the airway may enhance the remodeling of tissue through a transforming growth factor-Cdependent induction of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression and may, thereby, promote remodeling in airway diseases in which is implicated, such as asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic asthma affects roughly 300 million people worldwide (1). It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, as well as T helper (Th) type 2 and Th17 lymphocytes. Structural cells, such as epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells, play a role in initiating or exacerbating the disease after encounters with aeroallergens and exacerbation triggers, including inhaled Sophoridine pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. Epithelial cells are at the mucosal interface, and express multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs), such as TLR2, -3, and -4, to recognize products of inhaled pathogens (2). Upon TLR activation, epithelial cells generate significant quantities of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors to coordinate the host response Sophoridine to danger signals (3). Among TLRs, TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins, peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, and zymosan from fungi, and bacteria (4). TLR2 ligands have been shown to promote Th2 responses (5) and aggravate experimental asthma (6). In addition, TLR2 participates in the immune response to (7), (8), and (SA) (9), and it has been shown that these TLR2 ligandCexpressing pathogens are associated with acute exacerbations of asthma (10). Expression of TLR2 was shown to be up-regulated in asthmatic epithelial cells and in nasal epithelial cells from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) (11C13). Airway tissue from patients with severe asthma undergoes tissue remodeling, including increased collagen deposition, hyperplasia of smooth muscle and submucosal glands, and fibrosis, among other important histological findings (14). Even with adequate treatment, airway tissue remodeling was found in patients with chronic asthma, and is TRAIL-R2 accompanied by decline of lung function (15). At the molecular level, an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was one of the key findings in advanced remodeling tissue of patients with asthma (16). Among 25 subtypes of MMPs, MMP-1, -2, -9, and -10 were all found to be elevated in patients with asthma compared with normal subjects (17C20), and elevations of MMP-1 and -9 correlated with asthma severity (15, 21). Sophoridine In a mouse model of allergic Sophoridine inflammation, a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor produced a decrease in inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (22) and lung parenchyma (23), and also decreased airway hyperresponsiveness (24). Cells producing MMPs in the lung were identified as epithelial cells (25), fibroblasts (26), and monocytes (27). Recent reports indicate that bacterial colonization is present in the upper and lower airway mucosa of patients with asthma (28, 29). Associations between bacterial colonization of neonatal airway and subsequent development of asthma (30), evidence of bronchial infection by intracellular bacteria (31), and efficacy of benefit of long-term macrolide therapy in patients with asthma (32) all provide evidence implicating a connection between.