Although anti-HEV seropositivity was more frequent among the studied patients (6.3%), it was not statistically different from the control group (2.9%). IU/L, respectively. However, no one of the individuals with positive anti-HEV antibody showed elevated liver enzymes. Moreover, there was not a significant association between positive anti-HEV antibody result, age and Eprosartan mesylate the history of the hemodialysis. Conclusions: We did not observe statistically significant higher anti-HEV prevalence among patients with chronic HD; however, more safety precaution is needed to keep HD patients from the risk of possible exposure to HEV infection. test and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare the findings between groups. A < 0.001). The prevalence rate of HBV contamination in the analyzed patients was 1.25% (N = 1). No significant association was found between HEV positivity and hepatitis B contamination in CHD patients (= 0.097). All the analyzed patients were seronegative for anti-HIV antibody. The mean levels of AST (SGOT) and ALT (SGPT) enzymes in the analyzed Eprosartan mesylate patients were 19.96 11.08 U/L (ranged from 8 to 65 U/L) and 23.93 14.26 U/L (ranged from 8 to 82 U/L), respectively. Measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP), AST and ALT enzymes and bilirubin did not show extensive increase in those parameters among patients with positive anti-HEV antibody result. Moreover, it did not cause abnormal switch in albumin and total protein concentrations, except for one patient. Direct and total bilirubin were abnormal in only two of five patients with positive anti-HEV results (Direct bilirubin equivalent 0.27 and 0.26 and total bilirubin equal 0.47 and 0.44, respectively). Neither of healthy persons with positive anti-HEV results showed abnormal bilirubin in their lab data. Statistical analysis showed that neither of these variations significant. Table 1 summarizes the statistics and clinical laboratory findings for patients with and without anti-HEV antibody. Table 1 The ages, the durations of hemodialysis and the clinical laboratory data from HD patients with positive and negative anti-HEV antibody result Open in a separate window Discussion Patients with chronic hemodialysis are usually at risk Eprosartan mesylate of infectious diseases due to their compromised immune system.[20] Moreover, these patients are at the frequent exposure to infectious agents during their visits to HD centers. Among viral infections, the association of HEV contamination with the parenteral transmission of the computer virus remains highly controversial. In the present study we investigated the occurrence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies in a selected populace of CHD patients with history of chronic hemodialysis from two centers in southwest of Iran and compared the findings with healthy individuals of the same geographical Rabbit polyclonal to TGFB2 regions. Although anti-HEV seropositivity was more frequent among the analyzed patients (6.3%), it was not statistically different from the control group (2.9%). Those findings were in the range of anti-HEV IgG seroprevalance in previous reports from Iran.[13,16,17,19,21] The HEV seroprevalence rates reported for different countries and CHD patients have been highly variable, ranged as low as 0.9% in France, 2.6% in Italy, and as high as 7.3% or more among adult populace in Spain or in Brazil.[22C25] Higher prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies (IgG or IgM) than normal population was found in HD patients from Greece (9.7% vs 0.23%), Japan (9.4% vs 3.7%) or Taiwan (31% vs 8.9%).[26C29] Therefore, high variations in the results have delayed a comprehensive conclusion for the existence of parenteral HEV infection. This conflict should be resolved with more standardized global studies on different groups of people. Yet, some findings could explain (at least in part) some of these disagreements. As mentioned, patients with chronic hemodialysis and renal diseases suffer from immunocompromised condition.[20] Such condition may cause weakening the immune response against infections, like HEV, and may cause the Eprosartan mesylate production of varied amounts of antibodies in the affected patient. In addition to that, studies have shown a wide range of the persistence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies in the circulation.[30] Therefore, it is possible that some of the studies screened the cases after the clearance of the antibody and in this way designated them as seronegative. Assessing IgM in addition to IgG and considering certain phases of the disease may better normalize data. Moreover, genetic variation of the virus can cause massive diversion of the immune responses in the infected patients. Only one single serotype has been reported for the HEV samples isolated from patients with hepatitis;.