The neurodegenerative process is characterized by the progressive ultrastructural alterations of selected classes of neurons accompanied by imbalanced cellular homeostasis, a process which culminates, in the later on stages, in cell death and the loss of specific neurological functions. neuronal cell death and nutraceutical supplementation has been studied in nearing the early phases of neurodegenerative diseases. Today’s review shall cope with the pathophysiological systems underlying the first stages from the neurodegenerative process. In Pepstatin A addition, the potential of nutraceutical supplementation in counteracting these diseases will be assessed. place and is one of the Zingiberaceae family members. It includes essential natural oils, polyphenols, carbohydrates, protein, fats, water and minerals. The main element of the turmeric place is normally curcumin, a polyphenolic substance with solid antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral properties; recently, some scholarly research have got demonstrated its potential in neurodegenerative diseases [87]. For example, some research in vitro on microglia pressured that curcumin, given in low doses (0C20 M), promotes the manifestation of the Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 antioxidant proteins and peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), minimises neuroinflammation and the production of cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [88], reduces the stress of the endoplasmic reticulum through the inhibition of UPR as well as of the pro-apoptotic pathway associated with the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) transcription element [89], which, once triggered, induces the secretion of IL-1 and caspase 1. As supported by evidence, curcumin prevents the brain stress induced by oxidative damage by increasing the GSH levels and the activity of the superoxide dismutase Kcnh6 (SOD), GSH-peroxidase (GPx), GSH-reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzymes [90]. The anti-inflammatory house of curcumin manifests itself by increasing the levels of Pepstatin A anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as the manifestation of the NF-B transcription element [91]. Although curcumin promotes the aforementioned activities and offers strong neuroprotective compound, its use is limited by its poor absorption, quick rate of metabolism with systemic excretion and a limited permeability in the BBB level [92]. These elements are limitations, but may turn out to become useful. For example, curcumin plays an important role in AD, since it binds A plaques. In fact, the yellow color of turmeric emits a strong fluorescent signal thus facilitating the diagnosis of AD, but the quick elimination of plaqueCcurcumin Pepstatin A complexes may reduce the extent of the disease [93]. Modern nanotechnologies constantly develop materials able to interact with biological systems, inducing the desired physiological responses and limiting the undesired side effects. Therefore, nanotechnology can influence the ability of drugs to cross the biological curcumin and barriers might be a promising remedy, to be studied through nanocarriers, for the treating neurodegenerative illnesses [94]. 4.3. Resveratrol Resveratrol can be a polyphenolic substance within fruits (grapes, mulberries), origins, cereals, seeds, blossoms, vegetables, tea ( dark and green, peanuts and most importantly, in wines. The current presence of high concentrations of resveratrol in wines and its results were confirmed from the French Paradox which areas how the moderate daily usage of burgandy or merlot wine may shield your body against the upsurge in triglycerides and cholesterol amounts. Many scientific tests have emphasized the key therapeutic ramifications of resveratrol, concentrating on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and anti-tumour properties. For this reason Precisely, the consumption of resveratrol is preferred for many illnesses [95]. The elements that connect resveratrol to neurodegenerative diseases are known increasingly. The therapeutic ramifications of resveratrol could be from the high antioxidant activity. In Alzheimers disease, for instance, resveratrol decreases the ROS build-up by raising the GSH amounts; because the cognitive impairment seen in patients suffering from AD relates to Pepstatin A the ROS quantity, the administration of resveratrol may improve this symptomatology. Furthermore, resveratrol reduced the known degrees of nitrite and malonidialdehyde in rats suffering from Advertisement [96]. The role performed from the antioxidant activity of resveratrol can be proven from the inhibition from the activation of NF-B from the apoptotic procedure [97]. Lately, experimental evidence offers highlighted the Pepstatin A power of resveratrol to inhibit the aggregation of amyloid fibres because of a relationship between resveratrol as well as the N-terminal band of A protein [98]. As tested by both in vitro and in vivo tests, resveratrol decreases the mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinsons disease [99]. From its Apart.