Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Information 41467_2020_17361_MOESM1_ESM. functionalities by spatially modulating composition in ternary blends, leading to locally tunable photoluminescence from blue to red. and varying power are shown in Fig.?2b, with spectral filtering at 438?nm used to preferentially select the peak of -phase emission8. (Full PL spectra are shown in Supplementary Fig.?2a.) As is apparent from -phase line widths increasing with and (PL profiles are shown in Supplementary Fig.?2b,c). The -phase fraction, and in the simultaneous tuning of pattern dimensions and contrast. For instance, reducing laser power from 50 Jionoside B1 to 10?mW for a constant (Fig.?2b and Supplementary Fig.?2b, c). Finally, given the polymer?:?solvent co-crystal structure of -phase PFO one can estimate the amount of LA that was diffused into the film during patterning. Using the known molar volume of LA and the cavity volume for -phase PFO34, a stoichiometry of 1 1?:?1 is predicted, implying that for the patterns with the lowest achieved -phase fraction of ~2% the composition of LA molecules to PFO repeat units is ~1?:?50. (In practice, lower -phase fractions can be acquired actually, although it is noted that quantifying them by spectroscopic Raman mapping becomes increasingly prone to uncertainties.) Considering that full optimisation was not undertaken, such fine control of the diffusion rate clearly exemplifies the aforementioned molecule-on-demand concept. Patterning chain orientation Besides enabling intra-molecular rearrangement, as in the previous examples, certain crystallisable solvents can also induce directional orientation of semicrystalline polymers by epitaxial solidification14,15,28. The principal requirements are the crystal lattice match between the fast development axis from the small-molecular substance as well as the at ~1450?cm?1 documented for the indicated excitation/detection polarisations, and (e) the corresponding Raman anisotropy picture (in Fig.?3g, providing additional insight in to the patterning procedure. ?of PBTTT motion pictures doped through gate by annealing for 1?min in temperatures and writing acceleration (ideal ordinate). As in the last examples, heating system a trilayer framework composed of PBTTT, molecular-gate as well as the small-molecular BCF dopant Jionoside B1 induces diffusion of BCF over the gate and doping from the semiconducting polymer coating. The conductivity of PBTTT like a function of annealing temperatures comes after a sigmoidal advancement (Fig.?4b; assessed following spin-off from the auxiliary levels) and gets to a maximum worth of 62?S?cm?1, surpassing ~4?S?cm?1 acquired for the similarly simple solution-based doping using the more prevalent molecular acceptor 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ)43,44. (Remember that higher conductivities may be accomplished for PBTTT?:?F4TCNQ in a macroscopic level via manipulation of mix microstructure, doping system45 and molecular orientation46, aswell as the usage of vapour-phase doping44,45.) Two further features of these total outcomes are highlighted for their part in enabling the patterning presented below. Initial, in the lack of annealing, the PBTTT film retains its low conductivity (Fig.?4b). Second, the spin-off treatment will not de-dope PBTTT appreciably, as illustrated in Supplementary Fig.?7. The related transmitted-light micrographs (Fig.?4c) proof a progressive color change from crimson to faint-pink upon doping, providing a visual indicator of increased electrical conductivity of PBTTT. This modification can be realized by mention of the related absorption spectra (Supplementary Fig.?8) teaching the introduction of a wide feature centred in ~830?nm (PBTTT cations and BCF anions)41 and simultaneous attenuation from the maximum in ~552?nm ((cf. Fig.?4c) also to give a better correlation using the large-area conductivity measurements. Selected Raman spectra like a function of conductivity are demonstrated in Fig.?4d. Earlier reports have mentioned the doping-induced upsurge in the Raman strength percentage, (Fig.?4e) like a research for subsequent evaluation, whereby a match of the info using an Jionoside B1 empirical equation (from excitation in 532?nmclose towards the absorption maximum of PBTTT (Supplementary Fig.?8). Shape?4f demonstrates the conductivity obtained within patterned regions as function of laser beam power and acceleration displays the expected dependency, with higher yielding increased conductivity at highest due to enhanced temperature rise within the exposure time. The saturation and eventual roll-off for low and provides further insight into the patterning process. As shown in Supplementary Fig.?10b and Supplementary Table?1, reducing writing speed (i.e., increasing the effective diffusion time) by a factor of 600 leads only to a minor factor of 1 1.6 average increase in pattern dimensions. This indicates that the parasitic in-plane diffusion component is relatively small, as can be expected from an Arrhenius-type Rabbit Polyclonal to IQCB1 exponential dependence of diffusion coefficient on temperature36, with the latter decreasing sharply outside the laser-illuminated area. On the.