Data Availability StatementThe data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. measured by western blot. The number of positive cells of CB1 and CB2 in the rats’ hippocampus CA1 region was measured by immunohistochemistry. These results gave compelling evidence that SWHP could change anxiety-like behaviors of RS rats through regulation of the ECS-BDNF-ERK signaling pathway. Our study exhibited that SWHP improved anxiety-like behaviors in RS rat models by regulating the ECS-BDNF-ERK signaling pathway. The findings indicate that SWHP may have a therapeutic application in the RS model of stress disorder, which proposes a potential new direction for research into stress disorders regarding mechanisms and the development of novel antianxiety drugs. 1. Introduction Anxiety disorder is a nervous disorder characterized by stress, tension, panic, autonomic nervous disorder, muscle tension, and other symptoms. It may be present when a person has feelings of nervousness or worries that interfere with his/her interpersonal, school, or work life [1]. As we know, stress disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders that affect all age groups in the general population, where the incidence rate continues to increase year by 12 months. Stress disorders are also among the costliest mental disorders, regarding both morbidity and economic costs [2, 3]. Antianxiety drugs such as diazepam, benzodiazepines, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (amongst others) exhibit different degrees of side effects when undergoing treatment. Benzodiazepines have been used in the treatment of several forms of stress, but these compounds include side effects such as amnesia, muscle relaxation, sedation, and potential dependence [4C6]. Regarding SSRIs, the MHRA and UK-383367 FDA warned that SSRIs not only increased the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm, but also were of minimal benefit when it came to the treatment of children and adolescents [7, 8]. Side effects such as these therefore limit their use in clinics. The development of anxiety-reducing (anxiolytic) drugs has been a major focus in both pharmaceutical industries and academic neuropsychiatric research [9, 10]. Therefore, the development of anxiolytic drugs without UK-383367 adverse effects is extremely urgent for the treatment of stress disorders. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has formed a series of therapies for the treatment of stress disorders, and it plays an important role in the field of mental diseases with some advantages over western medicine. Compared with western medicine, TCM is usually safer UK-383367 and more effective in treating stress, with fewer side effects. With the increasing incidence of stress disorders, many patients have chosen TCM or integrated TCM and western medicine for treatment [11, 12]. Herb-pairs, the basic units of composition in Chinese herbal formulae, usually UK-383367 consist of two Chinese UK-383367 medicine natural herbs [13]. Suanzaoren is the first choice for sedatives and tranquilizers [14] and is the mature seed from var. (Bunge) Hu ex H.F.Chow, No. 20160122) and Wuweizi ((Turcz.) Baill, No. 20150601) were authenticated by Professor Jinli Shi (School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing School of Chinese language Medicine, Beijing, China) based on the [29]. Voucher specimens had been transferred at Institute of Chinese language Materia Medica, Beijing School of Chinese Medication, Beijing, China. Diazepam was extracted from Yimin Pharmaceutical Stock (Beijing, China, SFDA Acceptance No. H11020898). Sodium Chloride Shot, 500?mL/container, was purchased from Shijiazhuang Fourth Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (SFDA Acceptance No. H13023200). The medication dosages in the test included SWHP (0.75?g/kg/d), SWHP (1.5?g/kg/d), Rabbit Polyclonal to TNAP1 SWHP (3.0?g/kg/d), and diazepam (1.0?mg/kg/d). The medication SWHP was extracted by alcohol-water, as well as the compatibility percentage was 2?:?1. The Suanzaoren (10?g) and Wuweizi (5?g) place components were placed.